410 W 10th Ave
Columbus, OH 43210
Phone: (614) 293-5502
Assistant Professor, Cardiac Surgery
Physician, FGP-Cardiac Surgery
Aerospace Medicine;Cardiovascular Disease;Surgery;Thoracic Surgery
One of my graduate students who worked with me for the summer in 2014 wrote and was awarded a NASA research award for an idea for a project that might suitable for spaceflight.
I am the primary advisor to a NASA project involving more than a dozen undergraduate and graduate students. This project resulted in a $200,000 NASA grant that will involve flying a scientific experiment into space.
I have been approached my numerous students at all levels for advising, from high school students to surgical residents and fellows. Many I have taken on as members of my research team or have spent time with me shadowing. Whether it is a one-time encounter or a life-long relationship, I always keep my door open as I am always eager to talk to anyone who may benefit from what I have to offer.
Experiments in Spaceflight
I am a Major in the Air Force as part of the Air National Guard. I serve in the capacity of a surgeon and am the Chief of Clinical Services for the 179th Medical Group in Mansfield, OH. I am also undergoing training to be an Air Force flight surgeon.
|2015||Michelle Nguyen, The Ohio State University. Graduated 0.|
|2015||Joshua Ong, The Ohio State University. Graduated 0.|
|2015||Tiffany Lee, The Ohio State University. Graduated 0.|
|2015||Matt Arnott, The Ohio State University. Graduated 0.|
|2015||Janki Patel, The Ohio State University. Graduated 0.|
|2015||Christina Lee, The Ohio State University. Graduated 0.|
|2015||Halle McConnell, The Ohio State University. Graduated 0.|
|2015||Nicholas Scoville, The Ohio State University. Graduated 0.|
|2016||Michael Chung, The Ohio State University. Graduated 0.|
|2014||Jae Hoon, The Ohio State University. Graduated 0.|
|2015||Laura Sullivan, The Ohio State University. Graduated 0.|
|2015 - 2016||Jillian Yuricich, The Ohio State University. Graduated 2016.|
|2015 - 2016||Brandon Moore, The Ohio State University. Graduated 2016.|
|2011 - present||Board Certified Surgeon: American Board of Surgery|
|2012 - present||Board Certified inThoracic Surgeon: American Board of Thoracic Surgery|
|2012 - present||Certifed Heart/Lung Organ Procurement Surgeon: OPTN UNOS Membership and Professional Standards Committee|
|2013 - present||Medical License for the State of Ohio: State Medical Board of Ohio|
Lee PHU, Wangusi F. "Trends Toward the Development of a New Space Mark Providing Satellite Based Telmedical Services." In New Space Markets. Edited by Haskel, G.I. and Rycroft, M.. 181-189. Dordrecht, NL|NLD: Kluwer Academic Publishers, January 1998.
Schmitt DA, Francon P, Lee PHU. "Teaching of Space Life Sciences." In Advances in Space Biology and Medicine. Vol. 7. Edited by Bonting, SL. 213-245. Stanford: JAI Press, Inc, January 1999.
Lee PHU, Beygui RE. "Exposure and Open Surgical Management at the Diaphragm." In Operative Techniques in Surgery. Edited by Mulholland M, Albo D, Englesbe M, Hawn M, Hughes S, Sable M, Upchurch Jr. GR. -. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, December 2014.
|12/01/2013||Cardiothoracic Surgeon (The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center)|
|1994||B.S., Brown University|
|1997||M.S., International Space University|
|2005||M.D., Brown University Warren Alpert School of Medicine|
|2005||M.Public Hlth., Harvard School of Public Health|
|2015||Ph.D., Brown University Warren Alpert School of Medicine|
|1999 - present||Current Biotechnology|
|1999||Health & Medicine Rhode Island|
|2016 - present||Gravitational and Space Research|
|2016 - present||NPJ Microgravity|
|1996 - present||American Medical Association/Glaxo Wellcome Achievement Award. AMA/Glaxo Wellcome.|
|1998 - present||Korean Honor Scholarship. Korean Consulate in U.S..|
|1999 - present||2nd Place - Grad Student Poster. American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology.|
|2000 - present||Student Member. Sigma Xi Scientific Honor Society.|
|2000 - present||Ross McFarland Student Award for Best Student/Resident Abstract. Life Sciences and Biomedical Engineering Branch of the Aerospace Medical Association.|
|2000 - present||1st place - Grad Student Poster. American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology.|
|2001 - present||Faculty Scholar Award. Brown University.|
|2002 - present||1st place - Grad Student Poster. American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology.|
|2003 - present||Full Member. Sigma Xi Scientific Honor Society.|
|2003 - present||Harriet W. Sheriden Center for Teaching and Learning. Brown University.|
|2004 - present||Best Student/Resident Abstract at the 75th Scientific Meeting. Aerospace Medical Association.|
|2007 - present||Best Student/Resident Abstract - 78th Scientific Meeting. Aerospace Medical Association.|
|2007 - present||Citizenship Award - General Surgery Residency Program. St. Elizabeth's Medical Center.|
|2008 - present||SLS Outstanding Laparoendoscopic Resident Surgeon Award. SLS.|
|2008 - present||Resident Teaching Award. General Surgery Residency Program St. Elizabeth's Medical Center.|
|2008 - present||Finalist - Resident Award for Exemplary Teaching. American College of Surgeons.|
|2008 - present||Best in Research Award. General Surgery Residency Program St. Elizabeth's Medical Center.|
|2008 - present||Best Clinical Research - 2nd prize. MA Medical Society Research Poster Symposium.|
|2008 - present||Best Clinical Research - 2nd prize. St. Elizabeth's Medical Center.|
|2008 - present||Educational Top Gun Award. General Surgery Residency Program, St. Elizabeth's Medical Center.|
|2008 - present||Citation for Excellence in Teaching. Tufts University School of Medicine.|
|2009 - present||Educational Top Gun Award - 2nd Place. General Surgery Residency Program St. Elizabeth's Medical Center.|
|2009 - present||Best in Research Award. General Surgery Residency Program St. Elizabeth's Medical Center.|
|2010 - present||Educational Top Gun Award - 1st place. General Surgery Residency Program St. Elizabeth's Medical Center.|
|2010 - present||Best in Research Award. General Surgery Residency Program St. Elizabeth's Medical Center.|
|2011 - present||Fellow. Aerospace Medical Association.|
|2011 - present||Fellow of the Aerospace Medical Association. Aerospace Medical Association.|
|2012 - present||Rosenfeld Humanitarian Award. UCLA Cardiothroacic Surgery Program for Best Resident.|
|2013 - present||Member. International Academy of Aviation and Space Medicine.|
|2014 - present||Corresponding Member. International Academy of Astronautics.|
|2016 - present||Fellow of the American College of Cardiology. American College of Cardiology.|
|2016 - present||Fellow of the American College of Surgeons. American College of Surgeons.|
|2016 - present||LSI Excellence in Teaching Award. College of Medicine.|
|2016 - present||Thora W Halstead Young Investigator's Award. American Society for Gravitational and Space Research.|
Maxwell BG, Wong JK,Sheikh AY, Lee PHU, Lobato RL. "Heart Transplantation With or Without Prior Mechanical Circulatory Support in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease." Eur J Cardiothoracic Surgery. (January 0.): -.
Arkin N, Bhattacharya J, Lee PHU, McDonald K, Hernandez-Bousard T. "Hospitial Characteristics Associated with Mortality and Preventable Complications in Aortic Valve Replacements." Journal of Cardiac Surgery. (January 0.): -.
Fichadia HK, Solomon J, Lee PHU. "An Unusual Duplication of the Palmaris Longus Muscle." Int J Anat Var. (January 0.): -.
Ziegler S, Sheikh AY, Lee PHU, Desai J, Date MD, Ha R. "A Novel, Catheter Based Approach to Left Ventricular Assist Device Deactivation Following Myocardial Recovery." Ann Thorac Surg. (January 0.): -.
Gady,J; BOYAN,S; Jayaraman,M; Kelly,M; Kobayashi,L; Lee,P; Lynch,T; MINTER,M; SPOONER,A,M; Taylor,J. "HIV risk: no impact on medical student specialty choice.." Rhode Island medicine. Vol. 78, no. 10. (October 1995.): 293-294.
Gady J, Boyan S, Jayaraman M, Kelly M, Kobayashi L, Lee PHU, Lynch T, Minter M, Spooner AM, Taylor J. "HIV Risk: No Impact on Medical Student Specialty Choice." R I Med. Vol. 78, no. 10. (January 1995.): 293-4.
Vandenburgh,H; DELTATTO,M; Shansky,J; Lemaire,J; Chang,A; Payumo,F; Lee,P; Goodyear,A; RAVEN,L. "Tissue-engineered skeletal muscle organoids for reversible gene therapy." HUMAN GENE THERAPY. Vol. 7, no. 17. (November 1996.): 2195-2200.
Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Lee PHU, O'Malley L, Weber TK, Suh O, Anderson GR, Petrelli NJ. "The Establishment of a Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer Registry." Dis Colon Rectum. Vol. 39, no. 6. (January 1996.): 649-653.
Vandenburgh H, Del Tatto M, Shansky J, Lemaire J, Chang A, Payumo F, Lee PHU, Goodyear A, Raven L. "Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy." Hum Gene Ther. Vol. 7, (January 1996.): 2195-2200.
Shenkmann BS, Belozerova IN, Lee PHU, Nemirovskaya TL. "Structural and metabolic Characteristics of Rhesus Monkey m. Soleus After Spaceflight." J Grav Physiol. Vol. 7, no. 1. (January 2000.): S 39-42.
Shenkman,B,S; Belozerova,I,N; Lee,P; Nemirovskaya,T,L. "Structural and metabolic characteristics of rhesus monkey m. soleus after spaceflight.." Journal of gravitational physiology : a journal of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology. Vol. 7, no. 1. (January 2000.): S39-42.
Shenkman,B,S; Belozerova,I,N; Lee,Peter; Nemirovskaya,T,L; Kozlovskaya,I,B. "Effects of weightlessness and movement restriction on the structure and metabolism of the soleus muscle in monkeys after space flight.." Neuroscience and behavioral physiology. Vol. 33, no. 7. (September 2003.): 717-722.
Jay G, Lee PHU, Goldsmith H, Battat J, Mauer J, Suner S. "CPR Effectiveness in Microgravity: Comparison of Three Positions and a Mechanical Device." Aviat, Space & Environ Med. Vol. 74, (January 2003.): 1183-9.
Shenkman BS, Belozerova IN, Lee PHU, Nemirovskaia TL, Kozlovskaia IB. "Effects of Weightlessness and Movement Restriction on the Structure and Metabolism of the Soleus Muscle in Monkeys After Space Flight." Neurosci Behav Physiol 2003. Vol. 33, no. 3. (January 2003.): 717-22.
Jay,G,D; Lee,P; Goldsmith,H; Battat,J; Maurer,J; Suner,S. "CPR effectiveness in microgravity: Comparison of three positions and a mechanical device." AVIATION SPACE AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE. Vol. 74, no. 11. (November 2003.): 1183-1189.
Sides MD, Vernikos J, Convertino VA, Stepanek J, Tripp LD, Draeger J, Hargens AR, Kourtidou-Papadeli C, Pavy-LeTraon A, Russomano T, Wong JY, Buccello RR, Lee PHu, Nangalia V, Saary MJ. "The Bellagio Report: Cardiovascular risks of Spaceflight: Implications for the Future of Space Travel." Aviat Space & Environ Med. Vol. 76, (January 2005.): 877-895.
Sides,M,B; Vernikos,J; Convertino,V,A; Stepanek,J; Tripp,L,D; Draeger,J; Hargens,A,R; Kourtidou-Papadeli,C; Pavy-LeTraon,A; Russomano,T; Wong,J,Y; Buccello,R,R; Lee,P,H; Nangalia,V; Saary,M,J. "The Bellagio report: Cardiovascular risks of spaceflight: Implications for the future of space travel." AVIATION SPACE AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE. Vol. 76, no. 9. (September 2005.): 877-895.
Shansky,Janet; Creswick,Bernard; Lee,Peter; Wang,Xiao; Vandenburgh,Herman. "Paracrine release of insulin-like growth factor 1 from a bioengineered tissue stimulates skeletal muscle growth in vitro." TISSUE ENGINEERING. Vol. 12, no. 7. (July 2006.): 1833-1841.
Shansky J, Creswick B, Lee PHU, Wang X, Vandenburgh H. "Paracrine Release of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 from a Bioengineered Tissue Stimulates Skeletal Muscle Growth in Vitro." Tissue Eng. Vol. 12, no. 7. (January 2006.): 1833-41.
Olenchock SA Jr, Lee PHU, Yehoshua T, Murphy SA, Symes J, Tolis G Jr. "Impact of Aprotinin on Adverse Clinical Outcomes and Mortality up to 12 Years in a Registry of 3,337 Patients." Ann Thorac Surg. Vol. 86, no. 2. (January 2008.): 560-6.
Ashraf A, Lee PHU, Kim K, Zaporojan V, bonassar L, Valentini R, Spangenberger A, Weinzweig J. "Effect of Sustained-Release PDGF and TGF-b on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Impaired Wound Healing." Plas Reconstr Surg. Vol. 124, no. 4. (January 2009.): 1118-24.
Lee PHU, Moore R, Raizada A, Grotz R. "Duodenal Stent Migration Causing Small Bowel Perforation After Gastrojejunostomy." World J Radiol. Vol. 3, no. 6. (January 2011.): 152-4.
Lee PHU, Vandenburgh HH. "Spaceflight Reduces Foreign Protein Expression in Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle." Gravit Space Biol. Vol. 26, no. 1. (January 2012.): 17-24.
Lee PHU, Vandenburgh HH. "Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Bioengineered Skeletal Muscle: a New Model System." Tissue Eng Part A. Vol. 19, no. 19-20. (January 2013.): 2147-2155.
Maxwell, BG, Wong, JK, Sheikh, AY, Lee, PH, Lobato, RL. "Heart transplantation with or without prior mechanical circulatory support in adults with congenital heart disease." Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. Vol. 45, no. 5. (May 2014.): 842-.
Arkin, N, Lee, PH, McDonald, K, Hernandez-Bousard, T. "The association of nurse-to-patient ration with mortality and preventable complications following aortic valve replacement." J card Surg. Vol. 29, no. 2. (March 2014.): 141-.
Zeigler S, Sheikh AY, Lee PHU, Desai J, Banerjee D, Oyer P, Dake MD, Ha RV.. "A Novel, Catheter Based Approach to Left Ventricular Assist Device Deactivation Following Myocardial Recovery." Ann Thorac Surg. Vol. 98, no. 2. (January 2014.): 710-.
Maxwell BG, Powers AJ, Sheikh AY, Lee PHU, Lobato RL, Wong JK. "Resource Use Trends in Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Adults: An Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 1998 - 2009." J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. Vol. 148, no. 2. (January 2014.): 416-.
Davis, MK, Lee, PH, Witteles, RM. "Changing outcomes after heart transplantation in patients with amyloid cardiomyopathy." J Heart Lung Transplant. Vol. 34, no. 5. (May 2015.): 658-.
Maxwell BG, Mooney JJ, Lee PHU, Levitt J, Chhatwani L, Nicolls MR, Zamora MR, Valentine V, Weill D, Dhillon GS. "Increased resource use in lung transplant admissions in the lung allocation score era." Am J Respir Crit Care Med. Vol. 191, no. 3. (February 2015.): 302-.
Ricci, KB, Lee, PHU, Essandoh, M, Kilic, A. "Fungal pulmonary valve endocarditis masquerading as a pulmonary embolism." Case Reports in Surgery. Vol. Feb 22, (February 2015.): 1-.
Fichadia, HK, Solomon, J, Lee, PHU. "An unusual duplication of the palmaris longus muscle." Int J Anat Var. Vol. 8, (June 2015.): 15-.
|November 1996||Vandenburgh HH, Del Tatto M, Shansky J, LeMaire J, Chang A, Payumo F, Lee PHU."Tissue Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy" New York City. : 53A|
|January 1999||Lee PHU, Vandenburgh HH."The Effects of Microgravity of the Expression of a Foreign Protein in Tissue-engineered Skeletal Muscle" Seattle. : 10|
|October 2006||Pritchett M, Clestin-Morales N, Tiluckdharry N, Hendra K, Lee PHU."Successful Treatment of Refractory Methemoglobinemia with Red Blood Cell Exchange Transfusion" Northbrook. : 294S|
|March 2014||Lee,Peter HU."Advances in Cardiac Surgery and its Impact on the Aviator" Alexandria. : 336|
|Lee PHU, Maxwell B, Levitt J, Valentine V, Sheikh A, Weill D, Dhillon GS."Lung Allocation Score Increases Health Care Resource Utilization after Lung Transplant" .|
"Trends Toward the Development of a New Space Market Providing Satellite Based Telemedical Services." Presented at International Symposium on New Space Markets, Strasbourg, FR|FRA. (May 1997)
"The Effects of Microgravity on Tissue-engineered Skeletal Muscle Expression of a Foreign Gene." Presented at Marine Biological Laboratory Meeting on Cellular Responses to Microgravity, Woods Hole. (March 1999)
"The Case for Korea in Space." Presented at US_Korea Conference on Science, Technology, Entrpreneurship and Leadership, Los Angeles. (August 1999)
"Tissue Engineered Skeletal Muscle Myofibers Can Directly "sense" Gravitational Force Changes." Presented at Center for Advanced Studies in the Space Life Sciences Workshop, . (January 1999)
"The Effects of Microgravity on the Expression of a Foreign Protein in Tissue-engineered Skeletal Muscle." Presented at MD/PhD Program Retreat; Brown Medical School, Providence. (August 1999)
"Update for STS-117 Flight Experiment." Presented at American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology Meeting, Montreal, CA|CAN. (October 2000)
"Tissue Engineering & Gene Therapy Technologies for Countering Spaceflight Induced Muscle Wasting." Presented at First Annual Willy Z. Sadeh Memorial Lecture; Colorado State University, Fort Collins. (March 2000)
"Comparison of Single Rescuer CPR with the Kendall Cardiovent Device to Standard Two Person CPR in Simulated Microgravity." Presented at 73rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, Montreal, CA|CAN. (May 2002)
"Airway Management in Microgravity: A Comparison of Traditional Endotracheal Intubation and the Combitube." Presented at 73rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace medical Association, Montreal, CA|CAN. (May 2002)
"Comparison of Combitube and iLMA for Unrestrained Emergency Airway Management in Microgravity by Novice Intubationists." Presented at 74th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, San Antonio. (May 2003)
"Evaluation of an Unrestrained CPR Method in Microgravity." Presented at Aerospace Medical Association, . (May 2004)
"Going to Mars." Presented at Civil Air Patrol Northeast Region Conference, . (September 2004)
"Stepping Stone to Mars." Presented at Annual New England Astro-Assembly, . (October 2004)
"Evaluation of Medical Care and Transportation Issues at a Simulated Artic Mars Base." Presented at 75th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, . (May 2004)
"Evaluation of an Automated Compression Device for CPR in Microgravity." Presented at 76th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, . (May 2005)
"Surgical Skills of the Spacesurgeon." Presented at 77th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, . (May 2006)
"Estimating and Managing the Risk of Appendicitis for a Human Mars Mission." Presented at 78th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association, . (May 2007)
"Surgical Issues for a Future Human Mars Mission." Presented at St. Elizabeth's Medial Center, Boston. (September 2007)
"Renoprotective Effects of N-Acetylcystine in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery - A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials." Presented at Caritas Christi Annual Research Day, Boston. (March 2008)
"The Number of Surgical Procedures in an American Lifetime in 3 States." Presented at American College of Surgeons 94th Clinical Congress, . (October 2008)
"Surgical Issues for a Future Human Mars Mission." Presented at Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Newton. (February 2008)
"Surgical Issues for a Future Human Mars Mission." Presented at Surgical Grand Rounds, Baystate Medical Center, Springfield. (February 2008)
"Is Prophylactic Vena Caval Filter Placement Beneficial in Acute Spinal Cord Injury." Presented at 56th Annual Meeting of the Massachusetts Chapter of the American Medical Association, Boston. (December 2009)
"Surgical Skills for an Exploration-Class Mission: An Assessment of Needs and Training Requirements." Presented at 80th Annual Scientific Meeting of th Aerospace Medical Association, Los Angeles. (May 2009)
"Growing Utilization of IVC Filter Placement From 2001 - 2005: Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample." Presented at Society for Clinical Vascular Surgery 37th Annual Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale. (March 2009)
"Stepping Stones to Mars: Surgical Issues for a Human Mars Mission." Presented at Surgical Grand Rounds, St. Luke's Hospital and Health Network, Bethlehem. (May 2010)
"Advances in Cardiac Tissue Engineering and Gene Therapy." Presented at Surgical Grand Rounds, St. Elizabeth's Medial Center, Boston. (May 2010)
"Mission to Mars: Surgical Issues for Long-duration Human Space Travel." Presented at UCLA Surgery Grand Rounds, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles. (April 2011)
"5 Year Trends and Mortality Rates in Open vs. Percutaneous MAZE Procedures: Opportunities for Cardiac Surgeons in Treating Atrill Fibrillation." Presented at American College of Surgeons 97th Annual Clinical Congress, San Francisco. (October 2011)
"An Evaluation of Pilot Medical Certification Considerations in Lung Transplant Recipients." Presented at 84th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace medical Association, Chicago. (May 2013)
"Space Medicine in the 21st Century: Commercial & Governmental Opportunities." Presented at Silicon Valley Space Business Roundtable, Menlo Park. (February 2013)
"hTEE for the High-Risk Cardiac Patient." Presented at 33rd Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the International Society of Heart & Lung Transplantation, Montreal, CA|CAN. (April 2013)
"Heart Transplant and MCS Surgery and Training in the United States." Presented at Department of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul National University, Seoul. (September 2013)
"Surgical Options for End-stage Heart Failure." Presented at 15th Annual Cardiovascular Symposium, . (April 2015)
"An Update on Cardiac Surgery and Issues Relevant to Pilots." Presented at Flying Physician Association Great Lakes-Dixie Chapters Joint Spring 2015 Meeting, . (May 2015)
"An Update on ECMO & Lung Transplantion for Advanced Respiratory Failure." Presented at West Virginia Society for Respiratory Care 17th Annual Spring Healthcare Team Conference, . (April 2015)
"Space Medical Research and Surgical Issues for Long Duration Space Missions." Presented at OSU Surgical Grand Rounds, . (January 2016)
"Functional Cardiac Engineered Tissue Constructs to Model Heart Disease." Presented at The Ohio State University Klassen Research Day, . (March 2016)
"Microgravity and Space Research." Presented at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Transplant Center, Columbus, OH, US|USA. (November 2016)
"Stem Cell Research on the International Space Station." Presented at The World Stem Cell Summit, West Palm Beach, FL, US|USA. (December 2016)
"Cells Unleashed from the Chains of Gravity: Mind Bending Science form the U.S. National Lab on the Interntional Space Station." Presented at The World Stem Cell Summit, West Palm Beach, FL, FL, US|USA. (December 2016)
"Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Tissue-Engineering for in vitro Modeling on Earth and Space." Presented at 9th Annual Translational to Clinical (T2C) Regenerative Medicine Wound Care Conference Program, . (March 2016)
"Ex-Vivo Lung Perfusion: What is the Evidence?." Presented at Current Concepts in Repiratory Care, Columbus, OH, US|USA. (April 2016)